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  1. An open door:
    • Pendulum is swinging with increasing evidence that Islam's time may have come.
    • Effective approach to Muslims has already been done by Christian missionaries.
    • Apologetical material already exists in abundance, and is being made available.
    • Historical Criticism on both the authority of Muhammad and the Qur'an is available.
    • Disillusionment: Educated Muslims are losing their faith due to reading this material.
    • Muslims worldwide being converted to Christ through supernatural dreams and visions.
    • Access to Muslims is better than ever before: satellite, Internet, literature, radio
    • and (most importantly) through ethnic minorities living and studying in the West.
    • Muslims have come to us; they are living in our country and speak our language!
    • Still one in five of the world's 5 billion population
    • while even today there is only one Protestant missionary for every 500,000 Muslims. It is clear that the harvest fields are ready but the labourers are few (Matt. 9:37-38). There is an urgent need to raise up and train British students and graduates to take on the challenge.

  2. History of Islam:
    1. 570-646 A.D. Islam's birth (Islamic Traditional account vs. Orientalist account)
      [Muhammad the Prophet - Mecca]
      570 A.D.= Muhammad was born to Abdullah and Amina (Quraishi family)
      610 A.D.= received revelations after meditating for 6 months in Hira cave.
      622 A.D.= Hijra-the migration with 200 to Medina, beginning of political power.
      [Muhammad the Statesman - Medina]
      622-630 A.D.= Battles Badr, Uhud, the Ditch, and 700 Jews (3 families) killed.
      630 A.D.= Mecca conquered, bringing control of Arabian peninsula.
      632 A.D.= Death of Muhammad.
      646 A.D.= writing down of Qur'an by Zaid Ibn Thabit, under Uthman's auspice.

    2. 632-800 A.D. Islam's Conquest (Byzantium/Persian, Umayyad, Abbasid)
      with weakened Byzantium and Persian empires, a vacuum was left which Islam quickly filled, dominating Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, Palestine, Egypt, North Africa, and the Iberian Peninsula, and as far as India in the west; a major blow to Christian Church.
      661 A.D. SHI'ITES split over Muhammad's successor.
      732 A.D. Charles Martel stops Islam at TOURS, France.

    3. 750-1300 A.D. Stagnation (Mongols in east and Christians in west: 5th Crusade (1220)
      Abbasid Caliphate: Stagnation and Decline; Mongols in east and Christians in west: 5th Crusade (1220).

    4. 1300-1500 A.D. Expansion (Ottoman Empire, Moghuls in India)
      Ottoman Empire: Turkey and Mongol converts. Islam predominant in world. Moghuls in India. Push to Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, the Balkan states).

    5. 1500-1988 A.D. Decline and Resurgence (1923-Ataturk, 1960 independence, oil)
      Decline of Ottoman and Mongol empires, and European expansion.
      1923-Ataturk dismantles Caliphate (end of the Khalifah).
      1960 independence, oil, Khomeini brings about Islamic pride...

  3. The Scriptures -Torah, Zabur, Injil, QUR'AN (from eternal tablet in heaven = Sura 85:22). Qur'an:114 chapters = suras, and 6,666 verses = ayas, superceding all other revelations.
    • Three periods of Qur'anic revelation:
      (Note: chapters are named after the place where they were revealed - Meccan and Medina)
      1st Meccan (610-615):
      WARNINGS and leading ideas. Mostly in poetical style and short (i.e. 96, 74, 81, 83, 87, 111, 112).
      2nd Meccan (616-622):
      longer suras, doctrines with Biblical material. Claims one true religion (i.e. 53,43,38,39,17,23,46,72).
      Medinan (623-632):
      Long suras as well, zeroing in on divine approval of Muhammad's leadership. Historical events noted. Change from preacher to prince, more political and social (i.e. Sura 33:2, 23, 33,3 7 = approval of Zaid)
      600 verses deal with Law in the Qur'an
    • Collation of Qur'an:
      Zayd-ibn-Thabit collected Qur'an from other's memory, parchment, papyrus, stones, palm leaves, shoulder blades, animal's ribs, leather, boards. Final copy (Uthmanic recension) using Hafsa's copy, 4 copies made, and sent to Basra, Baghdad, Damascus, and Medina. All other codices (Ibn Musa, Ibn Masud, Ubayy Ibn Ka'ab) were burned.
    • Authority of the Qur'an:
      It claims to be from God, perfect linguistically, scientifically, historically, and with no human authorship. It is a miracle, as the prophet was illiterate. Problems with Sources, Hafsa, Errors, Abrogations and only for Arabs. (* See paper on "the Qur'an, An Apologetic")

  4. Teachings of Islam: (Islam means submission, Muslim = one who submits)
    Six Muslim Beliefs = Iman (*=See paper on Christian Response to Iman)
    1. Belief in One God Allah: god is unique, all powerful and merciful to Muslims.
    2. Belief in the Prophets: (126,000) including: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad the greatest.
    3. Belief in the Holy Books: (5) Suhuf (scrolls of Ibrahim), Taurut (Moses), Zabur (David), Injil (Jesus), Qur'an (Muhammad); [Also, Sunnah (Hadith), Ijma (unanimous agreement), Qias (analogical reasoning, measured with the above)]
    4. Belief in Angels (and Evil Spirits): Iblis, Jibra'il, Mika'il, Izra'il, Israfil.
    5. Belief in the Day of Judgment: good/bad deeds balanced by "book of destiny" predestined by Allah, puts the book in right hand=saved & will cross razor-sharp bridge, unsaved beaten & falls into Jahenna.
      -Paradise="Garden of delight" with virgins, fruits and springs of water.
      -Hell= (Jahenna) roasted, boiling water, pus, and torments.
    6. Belief in Decrees and Predestination of Allah: Everything, including good and evil is preordained by Allah, thus man resigned to fate (Kismet); and calls for In-sh'allah (thus fanaticism in war, and resigned to defeat and catastrophes)

  5. Practices of Islam "5 Pillars" (Deen)
    There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.
    Prayer five times a day, facing Mecca.
    Alms of 1/40 or 2.5% (plus Sadaqah = voluntary offerings).
    fast of Ramadan (9th month) begins and ends with distinguishing between threads.
    The pilgrimage to the Ka'ba in Mecca once in one's lifetime.
    (Shi'ites would add Jihad = striving in the cause of God)

  6. The Divisions of Islam
    Sunni (4 Caliphs)
    Shi'a (Ali only)
    Shi'ites (Twelvers) - Iran, India, Iraq; Isma'ilis (Seveners) - India, Syria, East Africa (Aga Khan); Zaydis - Yemen; Druzes - Lebanon
    Sufis and Ahmadiyya